Research Project

Safety assessment and risk management for Patna river front development project

Geetam Tiwari; Dinesh Mohan, K.N.Jha, Kalaga Ramchandra Rao and Girish Agarwal

Project Details

The Patna River Front Development (RFD) Project comprises 27 ghats, within a stretch of 6.6 km along the river front, connected by a continuous 4-6m wide promenade. The project area has varying levels of access and connections with the city, primarily pedestrian linkages with some vehicular access. Ease of access to the river front is limited due to the dense urban morphology of the city.  A scientifically designed riverfront in Patna assumes importance in the light of the tragedy during the Chath Festival on Ganga Ghats at Patna in 2012 due to the collapse of a temporary makeshift bridge.
In order to build the river front facility for safe and efficient circulation of the expected large crowds during festivals, including effective emergency evacuation, it is necessary to understand and predict the way in which people will move through the river front environment. 

(i)Safety assessment demonstrating the carrying capacity of the proposed riverfront designand its accesses with the projected demand, analysing structures and accessibility
(ii)Preparation of guidelines to be followed during operation of the river front to manage risks and safety hazards
(iii)Development of a risk management plan based on crowd modeling (movement and gathering of people under different scenarios) exercise to predict crowd movement during festivals.

The whole exercise will be based on quantified analysis.  The Consultant will use Crowd Modeling and/or other suitable technique(s) to model and predict the movement and circulation of crowds based on assessed future demand, addressing, inter-alia, safety hazards that large groups of people could generate, and possible evacuation scenarios, including likely time taken for evacuation in case of an emergency.

This report is based on the review of major stampedes events world over, data provided by BUIDCO and consultants working on the project, site visits and discussions with the local administration and other stakeholders in two workshops held on January 2014 and September 2014.  

The Division of Patna administration responsible for planning Chhat arrangements should have the following information for preliminary discussions with the stakeholders:
•Emergency vehicle access
•Erection of signage 
•Expected crowd numbers and crowd management
•Location/site plan
•Erection of structures such as watch towers, temporary bridges
•Waste management
•First aid 
•Traffic, transport and public transport

Key Partners and Stakeholders
The major stakeholders for Chhat  are: 
•Charitable trusts
•Media & broadcasters
Following plans are required

  • Risk assessment processes and risk management plan—as discussed in chapter 4
  • Emergency response plan (including an emergency communications plan and emergency medical plan) as discussed in chapter 5.
  • Transport management plan as discussed in chapter 3.
  • Crowd management plan 
  • Waste management plan 
  • Public communications plans, both pre-event and during the event
  • Communication protocols, and command and control structures
  • Staffing and volunteer roster.


  • Signs are required for the following information about the location of:
  • Parking/no parking areas
  • Toilets
  • Entrances and exits
  • First aid
  • Lost children/lost and found
  • Accessible facilities, including ramps and entry/exit points
  • Meeting points
  • Information booths.

The content of site plan should reflect locations of:

  • Barricades, screens etc. 
  • The information coordination centre and emergency response room
  • Restricted access areas 
  • Food vendors/stalls 
  • Toilets, including accessible toilets 
  • Sound and lighting control points. 
  • Access and thoroughfares
  • Emergency access routes 
  • All entrances and exits, including separate access points for authorized personnels routes around and through the event used by vehicles
  • Paths and lighting for pedestrians
  • Parking
  • Accessible points for people with a disability, including ramps and wheelchair-accessible routes 
  • Area for media working on the event 
  • Fire-fighting equipment 
  • Free drinking water points
  • Areas for lost children 
  • Secure areas for storing lost property, prohibited and confiscated goods
  • Areas for staff and volunteers
  • Electricity and stand-by generators 
  • Gas cylinders 
  • Shelter and shade
  • Security guards 
  • Waste receptacles and recycling facilities 
  • First aid facilities 
  • Facilities for people with a disability 
  • Public address systems 


  • Information stalls and way finders
  • Vehicle park attendants
  • Crowd management
  • Marshals.
  • Incident Report

It is advisable to have a system in place at the event to record any incidents or accidents that occur. This should be discussed after the event

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