Research Project

Rationalisation of Infrastructure Standards.

Geetam Tiwari

Project Details

Scope of work

  • Assess existing consumption pattern of low medium and high income groups residing in DDA housing based on sample survey of residents

  • Develop norms use for physical planning of different types of DDA housing


A total of 2285 respondents provided answers to the questionnaire from different areas of Delhi. The largest number of respondents was from the West with 644 forms filled in (28.2%). This was followed by the East (617 forms – 27.0%), the North (514 forms – 22.5%), and the South had the smallest number (510 forms – 22.3%). The schedule contained a number of questions relating to total water consumption, various purposes for which water was used, the source of water, income levels, type of housing with amenities and utilities, satisfaction levels, and sewerage problems. The tables and graphs given below/in the Appendix provide an overall picture of the views of the respondents, both at the aggregate as well as the zonal levels


  • Ownership of DDA flats is not generally along the lines of the various demarcated categories. Thus, more affluent families are occupying the flats meant for economically weaker sections, particularly in the South and West.

  • Per capita consumption averages around 100-150 lpcd, but it is lower for the East and higher for the South.

  • The main water use is for washing and the ownership of washing machines does not appear to make a significant difference to water use patterns.

  • Total consumption of water is lower (<300 litres) for Janata and LIG flats and higher (<1000 litres) for HIG flats.

  • As residents’ income levels go up per capita water consumption also increases. But the East and South zones are at opposite ends of this trend.

  • The major source of water is the tap followed by the tap with motor, and the latter increases average per capita consumption from 150 to 200 lpcd. The North has the highest percentage of motors.

  • As the number of bathrooms and toilets increases so does the per capita consumption. However, in the East the consumption is lower compared to the other zones.

  • The requirement of water is reported to be lower for the lower categories (150 lpcd) and the lower income groups (100 lpcd) than for the higher groups (200 lpcd), while there is no significant difference between various floors. The flats in the East demand less water and the Southern flats say they need more.

  • The Janata, LIG, MIG and poorer families are storing less water (150 lpcd) than the others (200 lpcd). The East and North store significantly less than the South.

  • Satsified and dissatisfied residents are equally distributed (about 40%) in the total population. But the East has more satisfied water users (55%) while the North and South have more dissatisfied consumers (41% and 49% respectively).

  • Dissatisfaction levels appear to go up with rising income even though water consumption is increasing. There is little variation in this regard across floors.

  • The main reason identified by respondents for their dissatisfaction is the low pressure at which water is supplied.

  • The other significant reasons are poor quality in the East and West, less water in the North, and bad timings, irregular supply, and less water in the South.

  • A comparison between water supplied, demanded, stored, and the level of consumption at which dissatisfaction is expressed indicates that quantity of water is not the major issue, but the pressure and regularity of supply.

  • Additionally, an analysis of consumer behavior according to different norms suggests that the lower income groups would be satisfied with 100 lpcd, the middle income groups with 150 lpcd, and the higher income groups with 200 lpcd, provided the supply is at adequate pressure, regular, and of good quality.

  • This consumer behavior could be used to set a minimum supply norm of 100 lpcd at a no-cost no-profit rate, while all supply above this norm could be charged for through a sliding scale which would encourage water conservation and proper use.

  • An analysis of drainage blocks that manholes (that is, colony sewers) and kitchens are identified as the main points of blockage.

  • Except for the North, and partially the South, much of this blockage is correlated to low levels of total water consumption (300 to 500 litres). Where water consumption goes up to 1000 litres it begins to block bathrooms and toilets.

  • This seems to indicate that colony level sewer systems have been over-designed to carry larger quantities of sewerage, while the household level drains cannot carry higher loads.

  • Hence, both systems have to be designed around the norm of 100 to 200 lpcd, depending upon the type of flat.

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