Research Project

Promoting Low Carbon Transport in India

Geetam Tiwari, Dinesh Mohan, Kalaga Ramchandra Rao, S.R. Kale and Ambuj D Sagar

Project Details

The project aims to address transportation growth, development challenges and climate change issues in an integrated manner. Among others, it seeks to develop a Transport Action Plan at national level and low-carbon mobility plans for up to four cities. The project is supported by the International Climate Initiative (ICI) of the German Government as well as the implementing partners including UNEP, the UNEP Risoe Centre in Denmark (URC), the Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi (IITD), the Indian Institute of Management, Ahmedabad (IIMA) and CEPT University.
To create an enabling environment for building sustainable transport systems which help in reducing the climate risks through mitigation within transport sector and by building adaptation capacity.
•    Create an enabling environment for coordinating policies at national level to achieve a sustainable transport system.
o    The project would assess the policies and actions that align climate policies and transport investments by developing “Transport Action Plans (TAP)” in cooperation with multiple stakeholders including industry associations, financial agencies and different ministries of GOI.
o    TAP would include:
*Indicators for measuring sustainability of transport sector in India
*Integrated assessment at the national level of all the competing transportation technologies
*Policy analysis for reducing emissions
*Framework for climate proofing of transport infrastructure and application to a transport infrastructure
*Case studies of a few transport project to assess impacts on climate

Policy recommendations
•    Build capacity of cities in improving mobility with lower CO2 emissions.
o    Capacity building for the development of viable project proposals covering technology and financial packages for the implementation of the action plans.
o    Recommend potential mechanisms for financing the sustainable infrastructures as identified in mobility plans.
•    Improved local environment by reducing emissions of local air pollutants
•    Improved mobility for all people
•    Improved energy security for India as well as other countries
•    Indicators for sustainability
•    Integrated assessment report: contain results from modeling exercise for BAU and sustainable scenario at the national level
•    Report on case studies
•    Framework for climate proofing
1.    Workshop
o    Organizing workshop for release of low carbon mobility plans
o    Organizing a seminar on fuel efficiency in coordination with UNEP
o    Organizing a national summit on promoting low carbon transport (all partners)
2.    Case studies and documentation
o    Case study of NMT
o    Case study of a metro system
o    Mapping the current vehicle technologies
3.    Final outcomes
o    Scenario development for future mobility based on sustainability rationale (URC/IITD/IIMA)
o    Methodology for analyzing future mobility scenarios
o    LCM plan for 4 cities from north, south, east and west (IITD/IIMA/CEPT)
o    Mobility plans for alternative scenarios 
o    Project proposal for BRTS, NMT and bus route planning
o    Recommendations for urban planning and sustainable public transport

Work done so far
3.1    Reports submitted
1.    City level Sustainability indicators 
This report aims to define a set of measurable indicators that can be used to not only measure the impacts of transport system and decisions made today on carbon emissions at city level but also identify the intervention areas by measuring the impacts of transport decisions on social and economic aspects (Annexure I).
2.    Toolkit to develop Low carbon Mobility Plan for cities
At present the detailed guidelines for preparation of CMP exist, the CMP that have been submitted and approved by the ministry have not been able to address the impacts of various strategies in the short term and long term. The detailed study of impact of projects on sustainability and meeting the travel demand of citizens is missing in the CMPs. 
Therefore, the report is prepared that aims to propose a methodology for preparation of Low Carbon Mobility Plan (LCMP) similar to CMP that provides a roadmap for achieving the goal of provision of low carbon transport in Indian cities. 
The report proposes a methodology of LCMP in four sections. Firstly, the comparative analysis between the concepts of CMP and the LCMP is done. The second section lays emphasis on the data requirement and the relevant surveys required to prepare LCMP. The third section presents the contents to be covered in LCMP. The last section is the sample of term of reference to be used while appointing consultants to prepare LCMP (Annexure II). 
3.    Report on Case studies
The case studies have been done with an aim to
•    provide better estimates for parameters on some key projects promoting sustainable transport in India 
•    improve understanding about the sustainability impacts of these  transport projects
A total of four in depth case studies at project level from India have been done to improve the information on the following transport systems / infrastructures and to understand their contribution to mitigation of CO2 emissions and broader sustainability impacts:
•    Metro transport systems 
•    Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) systems
•    Non motorised transport (NMT) modes, 
•    Dedicated rail freight corridor  
Of these, case study for Metro transport systems and Non-motorized transport modes have been done and submitted by IITD (Annexure III and Annexure IV).
3.2    Workshops conducted
Workshops are an important component of the project to enable stakeholder consultation and provide training to the consultants and local authorities.
Following workshops have been conducted under the curriculum so far-
1.    Three-Day Training Session on Developing Low Carbon Comprehensive Mobility Plans, 11-13 April, 2012, New Delhi, India
Low Carbon Comprehensive Mobility Plans (LCMPs) were the focus of a capacity building training session that took place at the India Habitat Centre in New Delhi, from 11-13 April, 2012. Generating LCMPs is a process that involves several steps, and follows a methodology developed by project partners at a previous workshop. The training session was designed to familiarize stakeholders with the LCMP approach. Annexure V gives the list of the participants.
Consultants and officials from cities participating in the project were invited to attend, as were others not directly associated with the process. A wide range of topics were discussed during the training, which was led by project partners and international experts.
The first day included a high-level stakeholder dialogue session with the Ministry of Urban Development (MoUD), national policy makers, and city commissioners. Presentations were made on both financial and technical aspects, illustrated with examples from around the world. 
The second and third day included training on the LCMP methodology. During both days, consultants and representatives of participating cities were encouraged to share their experiences. 
2.    Low Carbon Transport in India - Stakeholders' Consultation Workshop, 18-20 October 2011, India Habitat Centre, New Delhi, India.
A three day workshop to share preliminary results from the project with key stakeholders and beneficiaries took place on 18-20 October 2011 at the India Habitat Centre in New Delhi, India. The workshop generated discussions and provided concrete recommendations that will help the project team in finalizing the outputs. The workshop also helped to fast track the next phase of the project, that will involve testing of methodologies and toolkits produced at both national and city level and integration of these outputs with the existing transport policies in India. 
Main topics covered during the workshop included: sustainability indicators, integrated assessment to develop a transport action plan (roadmap), assessment of transport interventions in India and its impact on sustainability and, methodology for low carbon mobility plans. List of the participants is given in Annexure VI. 
3.    Macro and City Level Indicators for a Sustainable Transportation System in India
The development of a set of sustainability indicators is one of the activities of the project "Promoting Low Carbon Transport in India". The indicators will serve as a tool to measure the sustainability of transport systems based on the long-term economic, social and environment impacts of transport decisions made at national and city level. It is important that indicators developed for India best reflect local perceptions of sustainability. 
CEPT University's Centre for Urban Equity (CUE) organised a one day stakeholder's workshop on 29 August 2011, in Ahmedabad India, to discuss these indicators. Stakeholders included project partners and other experts working on sustainable transport. The workshop objective was to obtain expert opinion beyond what exists within the three partner institutions, who had prepared a list of indicators as per the agreed format, which covered economic, social and environmental aspects of sustainability.
Prior to the finalization of the indicators, project partners, key stakeholders and transport experts were invited to participate in a public survey that was conducted till 17 October 2011, to facilitate successful elaboration of these indicators within the project and to pave the way for their wider application in policy planning. 

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